# Reduce

The reduce function is used to iterate values in an array and reduce the contents into a single output. This is useful for summarizing data or transforming a collection into a different format.

The following example shows a reducer operating on an array containing three values and returning their sum.

``````let ct = 0;
function myReducer(acc, val, ix, arr) {
console.log(`[\${ct++}] acc: \${acc} val: \${val} ix: \${ix} arr: \${arr}`);
return acc + val;
}

let output = [3,2,1].reduce(myReducer, 1);

console.log('output: ' + output);
``````

Executing this code produces the following output:

``````" acc: 1 val: 3 ix: 0 arr: 3,2,1"
" acc: 4 val: 2 ix: 1 arr: 3,2,1"
" acc: 6 val: 1 ix: 2 arr: 3,2,1"
"output: 7"
``````

The function was called three times, once for each value in the array. Note that the first value for acc is 1. This is because an initial value of 1 was passed to the reduce(...) call that invoked the reducer. This initial value is used to seed the accumulated output.

The output is 7. This is the total of the input values in the array (1+2+3) plus the initial value of 1.

## Parameters

The reducer function takes four parameters: * Accumulator * Value * Index * Array

### Accumulator

The first parameter received by the reducer is the accumulated value. This will become the final output that is returned once the reducer has iterated all values in the array.

### Value

The current value being processed. The reducer will be called once for each value in the array. On each call, the current value that is being operated on is passed as this parameter.

### Index

The index in the array of the current value that is being processed.

### Array

The array that is being processed.

## Call Count based upon Initial Value

The number of times the reducer is called depends upon whether an initial value is provided.

This code is invoked twice:

``````[1,2,3].reduce(myReducer)
``````

This code is invoked three times:

``````[1,2,3].reduce(myReducer, 1);
``````

The reason for this is due to how initial values are handled. If no initial value is passed to reduce(...) then the first value in the array is used as the initial value. In this case, the reducer function is called one fewer times. There is no reason to call the reducer for the first value in the array since there is no initial value to modify.

This becomes important if a reducer function contains side effects. Reducers should not contain side effects because the number of times the reducer is called varies based upon the length of the array and upon whether an initial value is provided.